Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4291 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION My name is Zaw min Tun and I am a student of International Advance Diploma in Computer Study (IADCS) of NCC and attending at KMD Computer Centre which is situated in Yangon, Myanmar. In the first term of IADCS, I have to study Advanced JAVA, System analysis and Design and Enterprise Network. All of the subjects have assignments. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Enterprise Network" essay for you Create order Advanced JAVA is local subject where other two subjects, System Analysis and Design and Enterprise Network are global subjects. This System Analysis and Design assignment is about the DVD store system which aims to change from manual system to computerize system. In Task 1, I have to draw DFD and write Aims and Objectives of the system. In Task 2, I have to draw ERD with the description of entities, attributes and relationships. In Task 3, I have to draw ELH for the DVD. In Task 4, I have to draw Forms and normalize each processes and make a data dictionary. In task 5, I have to draw Draft screen Design and Prototype for Searching, Loan and Member Registration together with Validation rules. In Task 6, I have to write Assumption, Review, Site preparation and Hardware requirements. (a) Context Diagram (b) Aims and Objectives This system, have many processes including purchase, loan, reserve, search, sale and report. All the records of the whole processes are manual system (i.e. Records are on paper or in book) According to the scenario, there will be two sale assistant, two workstations and a manger. Since the current system is manual system and records are stored on book, it becomes hard to find a record in the whole book. Also, DVD information can only be searched by public workstation. Since there are a lot of problems searching and many others, the store wants to make the system running like e-commerce solutions on the Internet. It has benefits like Enabling search DVD easily by category (e.g. Movie type) To keep many records including sales, members, supplier and many others To improve system performance To process system quickly To reduce human resources and paper wastes (c) Data flow diagrams Level 1 for DVD store system Process Description 1. Member Registration Process In order to loan DVDs from this store, the customers need to register and become a member since this store allows only members to loan. To register, the customer has to fill in the Registration form. After filling in the registration form, the form should be given to sale assistant together with the member registration fees. The sale assistant will give member card to the customer and the customer becomes a member of the DVD store. 2. Loan Process This process is the loan process where members will loan DVDs from store. Member search and when member got the wanted DVD, member has to enquire to the sale staff. The member card should be updated before the loan DVD is received. Available DVDs will be loaned to the customer where Unavailable DVDs can be reserved. 3. Return Process This process is Return DVD process where members will return the loaned DVD to the store. The member card together with the loan fee and loan DVD should be given to the sale assistant. 4. Sale Process This process is the sale process where the old DVDs that the manager doesnt want to be in store anymore are sold at discount price to the customers. 5. Order Process In this process, the manager of the store orders DVDs from the supplier. Dataflow Description Member Registration Process 1. Enquire for new member information Customer Enquire about how to registration to the sale assistant 2. Information Sale Assistant gives information to the customer 3. Request Member Form Customer requests member form from the Sale Assistant 4. Membership Form The Sale assistant gives membership form to the customer 5. Complete Form The customer returns the form which is completely filled in to the sale assistant. 6. Invoice The Sale assistant gives invoice of member registration fee to the customer 7. Member Registration Fee The Customer gives membership fees to the Sale assistant 8. Member Card The Sale Assistant gives member card to the customer and the customer becomes a member. 9. Confirm that member card is received Member Confirms that the member card is received. Loan Process 1. Search DVD by category or by name Member search for DVD by name 2. Enquire the wanted DVD Member enquires the wanted DVD to the sale assistant. 3. Inform whether DVD is available or not Sale Assistant informs the member whether DVD the member requested is available or not 4. If unavailable, reserve DVD Unavailable DVDs requested by the member can be reserved 5. If available, request DVD + Member Card Available DVD can be requested by giving member card to the sale assistant. 6. Request will be canceled if the member has already loaned 5 DVDs The request by the member will be rejected if member has already loaned 5 DVDs 7. Requested DVD and updated member card Sale Assistant gives reqested DVD and updated member card to the member. Return Process 1. Loaned DVD + Member Card Member returns DVD to the sale assistant. Afterwards member card should be given. 2. Check Member card Sale Assistant checks the member card 3. Invoice Sale Assistant gives invoice which is calculated for the loan dvd to the member 4. Payment Member gives payment to the Sale Assistant 5. Late fee is paid if the DVD return date is 24hr later than due date Late fee is given as extra to the payment if the payment is later than due date for 24 hours. Sale Process 1. Ask the list of selling DVD The customer asks the manager the list of selling DVDs 2. Information The manager sends information about the selling DVD list. 3. Buying DVD list The customer gives a list of DVDs to be bought to the manager 4, Discounted DVD + invoice The manager gives DVDs that are already discounted and invoice to the customer 5. Payment The customer makes payment for the buying DVDs to the manager. 6. Confirm Payment The manager confirms that payment has made to the customer Order Process 1. Enquire DVDs The manager enquires DVDs to the supplier. 2. Available DVD and unavailable DVD list + Information of available DVDs The supplier gives the list of available DVDs and Unavailable DVDs 3. Reserve unavailable DVDs The customer can reserve unavailable DVDs to the supplier 4. Order available DVDs The supplier orders available DVDs to the supplier 5. Ordered DVDs + Invoice Supplier gives ordered DVD and invoice 6. Payment The manager makes payment to the supplier 7. Confirm that payment is made The supplier confirms that payment has been made Data Store Contents Member The Sale Assistant has to add member details and update when new members come to register DVD The file where the details of DVDs are stored. Sale assistant have to read this DVD file when the members come to request DVDs. Loan File Whenever a DVD was loaned by the member, new data is added to this file. When Member return DVDs, this file is read and the some information is deleted. Return DVD All the returned DVD information is stored in this file Reserve The DVD reservations made by the members are stored in this file Catalogue All the new DVDs which are added stores in this file. When DVDs are sold out, this file needs to be updated Supplier All the supplier information that are registered are stored in this file. Sale Sale made by the manager are stored in this file Sale Detail All the detail of sale made by the manager are stored in this file External Entity Definitions Customer * Register * Buy DVDs Member * Loan * Return * Make Payment * Reserve Supplier Accept order Send Requested DVDs and invoice Receive Payment (a) EINTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM (b) ENTITY DESCRIPTIONS No Entity Name Description 1 Customer To store the customer information. When the customer buy DVDs, the detail about buying is stored in this file 2 Sale To store the sale information. The information of Sale (like Sale Date, Sale ID) are stored. 3 Sale Detail To store the detail information about the sale. The detail information consists of Price, Quantity and etc 4 DVD To store the information about the DVD. This file is updated when new DVDs bought from supplier are added or the sale is made. 5 Order Detail To store the detail information about order. The detail information consists of Price, Quantity and etc 6 Order To store the order information. The information of Order (like Order date, Order ID) is stored. 7 Supplier To store the supplier information. Store the information when the system make the order with the new supplier 8 Loan Detail To store the detail information about the Loan. The detail information consists of Price, Quantity, Loan Date and etc 9 Loan To store the loan information. The information of Loan (like Loan date, Loan ID) is stored. 10 Member To store the member information. Store the information when the customer registers or the member loan DVDs or Return DVDs. 11 Reservation To store the reserve DVD information when the requested DVD by member is unavailable 12 Reservation Detail To store the detail information about the reserve DVD (c) ATTRIBUTES Customer Attribute Data Type Size Comment Customer ID Number 8 Primary Key Customer Name Text 12 Address Text 20 Telephone Text 12 Sale Attribute Data Type Size Comment Sale ID Number 7 Primary Key Sale Date Date and Time Sale Detail Attribute Data Type Size Comment Sale ID Number 7 Primary Key DVD ID Number 7 Foreign Key Quantity Number 7 Price Number 7 DVD Name Text 15 DVD Attribute Data Type Size Comments DVD ID Number 7 Primary Key DVD Name Text 20 Price Text 10 Quantity Number 10 Order Detail Attribute Data Type Size Comment Order ID Number 7 Primary Key DVD ID Number 7 Foreign Key DVD Name Text 20 Quantity Number 5 Price Number 10 Order Attribute Data Type Size Comment Order ID Number 7 Primary Key Order Date Date and Time 15 Supplier Attribute Data Type Size Comment Supplier ID Number 7 Primary Key Supplier Name Text 10 Address Text 20 Phone Text 15 Loan Detail Attribute Data Type Size Comment Loan ID Number 7 Primary Key Loan Date Date Time 10 Member ID Text 10 Foreign Key Qty Text 5 Overdue Fee Text 8 Return Date Date and Time Loan Attribute Data Type Size Comment Loan ID Number 7 Primary Key Loan Date Date Time 10 Member ID Text 10 Foreign Key Member Attribute Data Type Size Comment Member ID Number 7 Primary Key Name Text 15 Address Text 20 Phone Number 10 Email Text 15 Reservation Attribute Data Type Size Comment Reservation ID Number 10 Primary Key Reservation Date Text 10 Member ID Number 10 Foreign Key Reservation Detail Attribute Data Type Size Comment Reservation ID Text 10 Primary key DVD ID Number 7 Foreign Key DVD Name Text 20 (d) OPTIONALITY AND DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP Entity Customer and Sale Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Customer may have one or more Sale. One Sale must have one Customer. Entity Sale and Sale Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Sale may have one or more Sale Detail. One Sale Detail must have one Sale. Entity DVD and Sale Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional DVD may have one or more Sale Detail. One Sale Detail must have one DVD. Entity DVD and Order Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional DVD may have one or more Order Detail. One Order Detail must have one DVD. Entity Order Detail and Discount Order Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Order Detail may have one or more Order. One Order must have one Order Detail. Entity Supplier and Order Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Supplier may have one or more Order. One Order must have one Supplier. Entity DVD and Loan Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional DVD may have one or more Loan Detail. One Loan Detail must have one DVD. Entity Loan and Loan Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Loan may have one or more Loan Detail. One Loan Detail must have one Loan. Entity Member and Loan Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Member may have one or more Loan. One Loan must have one Member. Entity DVD and Reservation Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional DVD may have one or more Reservation Detail. One Reservation Detail must have one DVD. Entity Reservation and Reservation Detail Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Reservation may have one or more Reservation Detail. One Reservation Detail must have one Reservation. Entity Member and Reservation Degree of Relationship One to many Optional Member may have one or more Reservation. One Reservation must have one Member. (a) ENTITY LIFE HISTORY a) Normalization Member Registration Form Member Registration Form Member ID _______________ Join Date _______________ Member Name _______________ Address _______________ Phone _______________ Email _______________ Sex _______________ Member Sign Staff Name _______________ _______________ Staff Sign _______________ Supplier Registration Form Supplier Registration Form Supplier ID _______________ Registration Date _______________ Supplier Name _______________ Address _______________ Phone _______________ Email _______________ Sex _______________ Supplier Sign Staff Name _______________ _______________ Staff Sign _______________ DVD Entry Form DVD Entry Form DVD ID _______________ Entry Date _______________ DVD Name _______________ Category _______________ Director _______________ Cost per day ______________ Overdue fees per day _______________ Order Form Order Form Order Date _______________ Order ID _______________ Supplier ID _______________ Supplier Name _______________ No DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Price Sub Amount Total Amount Page- 2 1. Gather Data Order Date Order ID Supplier ID Supplier Name DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Price Sub Amount Total Amount 2. Choose a Key Order ID 3. First Normal Form (1NF) Order Date Supplier ID Supplier Name Order ID Total Amount 4. Second Normal Form (2NF) DVD ID DVD Name Order ID DVD ID Quantity Sub Amount 5. Third Normal Form (3NF) Order ID Order Date Supplier ID Order ID Supplier Name DVD ID DVD Name Order ID DVD ID Quantity 6. Optimization [Order] Order ID Order Date Supplier ID [Supplier] Supplier ID Supplier Name [DVD] DVD ID DVD Name [Order Detail] Order ID DVD ID Quantity 7. Data Model Page- 2 Loan Form Loan ID _______________ Loan Date _______________ Member ID _______________ Member Name _______________ No DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Due Date Price Sub Amount Total Amount Staff Name _____________ Staff Sign _____________ Page- 2 1. Gather Data Loan ID Member ID Member Name Loan Date DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Due Date Price Sub Amount Total Amount 2. Choose a key DVD ID 3. First Normal Form (1NF) Loan ID Staff Name Staff Sign Loan Date Member ID Member Name Loan ID DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Due Date Price Sub Amount Total Amount 4. Second Normal Form (2NF) Loan ID Staff Name Staff Sign Loan Date Member ID Member Name 5. Third Normal Form (3NF) DVD ID DVD Name Loan ID Quantity Due Date Price Sub Amount Total Amount Loan ID Staff Name Staff Sign Loan Date Member ID Member Name 6. Optimization [DVD] DVD ID DVD Name [Loan] Loan ID Staff Name Staff Sign Loan Date [Loan Detail] Loan ID Quantity Due Date Price Sub Amount Total Amount [Member] Member ID Member Name 7. Data Model Page- 2 Page- 2 Return Form Return Form Return Form No _______________ Return Date ________________ Member ID _______________ Member Name _______________ Member Phone _______________ Member Address _______________ DVD ID DVD Name Loan No Loan Date Amount OverDue fees Sub Amount Total Amount Staff ID _______________ Staff Name _______________ Staff Sign _______________ Page- 2 1. Gather Data Purchase Date Return Form No Return Date Member ID Member Name Member Phone Member Address DVD ID DVD Name Loan No Loan Date Amount OverDue Fees Sub Amount Total Amount Staff Name Staff Sign 2. Choose a key Return Form No 3. First Normal Form (1NF) Return Form No Member ID Member Name Member Phone Member Address Return Date Total Amount Staff Name Staff Sign Return Form No DVD ID DVD Name Loan No Loan Date Amount OverDue Fees Sub Amount 4. Second Normal Form (2NF) DVD ID DVD Name Overdue Fee Amount Sub Amount Return Form No DVD ID Loan No Loan Date 5. Third Normal Form (3NF) Return Form No Return Date Staff Name Staff Sign Member ID Member Name Member Phone Member Address DVDID DVD Name Overdue Fee Amount Sub Amount Return Form No DVD ID 6. Optimization [Return] Return Date Staff Name Staff Sign [Member] Member Name Member Phone Member Address [DVD] DVD Name Overdue Fee [Return Detail] DVD ID Loan No Loan Date 7. Data Model Page- 2 Selling Form Selling Form Voucher No _____________ Date _____________ Customer Name _____________ No DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Price Amount Total Amount Receptionist Name ________________ Receptionist Sign ________________ Page- 2 1. Data Gathering Voucher No Customer Name Date DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Price Amount Total Amount Receptionist Name Receptionist Sign 2. Choose a key Voucher No 3. First Normal Form (1NF) Voucher No Customer Name Date Receptionist Name Receptionist Sign Total Amount Voucher No DVD ID DVD Name Quantity Price Amount 4. Second Normal Form (2NF) Voucher No DVD ID Quantity Amount DVD ID DVD Name Price 5. Third Normal Form (3NF) Voucher No Customer Name Date Receptionist Name Receptionist Sign Total Amount Voucher No DVD ID Quantity Amount DVD ID DVD Name Price 6. Optimization [Voucher] Customer Name Date Receptionist Name Receptionist Sign [DVD] DVD Name Price [Voucher Detail] DVD ID Quantity 7. Data Model Page- 2 Reservation Form Reservation Form Reservation ID _____________ Date _____________ Member ID _____________ Member Name _____________ Member Address _____________ Member Phone _____________ DVD ID DVD Name Quantity 1. Gathering Data Reservation ID Member ID Member Name Member Address Member Phone Date DVD ID DVD Name Quantity 2.Choose a key Reservation ID 3 First Normal Form (1NF) Reservation ID Member ID Member Name Member Address Member Phone Reservation ID DVD ID DVD Title Number of DVD 4 Second Normal Form (2NF) Reservation ID DVD ID DVD Title Number of DVD 5 Third Normal Form (3NF) Reservation ID Member ID Member Name Member Address Member Phone Reservation ID DVD ID Quantity DVD ID DVD Title 6. Optimization [Reservation] Reservation ID [Member] Member ID Member Name Member Address Member Phone [Reservation Detail] Reservation ID DVD ID Quantity [DVD] DVD ID DVD Title 7. Data Model System Analysis Design KMD Computer Center b) Data Dictionary Draft Screen 1. Combo Box, To choose Category, DVD ID, DVD Name, Director for DVD searching 2. Text Box, To type for Keyword 3. Button, To start searching DVD 4. Button, To clear information of Text Boxes, Menu Boxes and Contents of Data Grid View 5. Button, To close Search DVD form 6. Data Grid View, To show the list of searched DVD information 1. Text Field, To display loan ID automatically 2. Combo box, to type the member ID or can choose member ID 3. Text Field, To display Member Name automatically after choosing or typing Member ID 4. Text Box, To type DVD ID 5. Date time picker, to select the loan date of rent DVDs 6. Date time picker, to select the expire date of rent DVDs 7. Text Box, To type Quantity of rent DVD(s) 8. Button, To add Details of rent DVD to Data Grid View 9. Data Grid View, To show the Details of Added DVD 10. Button, To remove the selected information of Data Grid View 11. Button, To remove all the information of Data Grid View 12. Button, To save the Rent information 13. Button, To close Loan Form 1. Text Field, To display Member ID automatically 2. Text Box, To type Member Name 3. Date time picker, to select the Registration Date of Member 4. Text Box, To type NRC number of Member 5. Text Box, To type Address of Member 6. Text Box, To type Phone Number of Member 7. Text box, To type Email of Member 8. Button, To save the filled Information 9. Button, To clear information of Text Boxes and Date time picker 10. Button, To exit New Customer Registration Form (b) PROTOTYPE (c) VALIDATION RULES Search DVD form In the Menu Box of Search By, there are DVD ID, DVD Name, Director and Category. If any of them are not chosen and the Search Button is pressed, the Error Message Box will appear. In Keyword text box, the related data according to the search by menu box should be entered. If the member doesnt type this text box, and Search Button is pressed, the error message box will appear. After pressing Clear button, all the typed words in keyword box will be deleted and the Details in Data Grid View will be deleted and the Message box will appear. Loan form If the Member ID box is not typed or chosen and Save button is pressed, the error message will appear. The name of member in Member Name box should be appeared automically after choosing or typing Member ID. If DVD ID box is not typed and Add button is pressed, the error message box will appear. Loan ID and Loan Date should be appeared automatically. Loan Date should be in DD/MM/YYYY format. If Expire Date is not typed and Add button is pressed, the Error message box will appear. If Quantity Box is not typed and Add button is pressed, the Error message box will appear. If Remove All button is pressed, the Details in Data Grid View will be removed and a message box will be shown. Save button will only available to press if Member ID Box is typed and there should be a detail about the loan DVD in Data Grid View. New Customer Registration Form Member ID in Member ID box will appear automatically and the user does not need to type. In Registration Date date picker box, the customer must choose the registration date. If Member Name in Member Name box is not typed and Register button is pressed, the Error message box will appear. If NRC Number in NRC Number box is not typed and Register button is pressed, the error message box will appear. If Member Address in Address box is not typed and Register button is pressed, the error message box will appear. If Member Phone Number in Phone Number box is not typed and Register button is pressed, the error message box will appear. If Member email in Email box is not typed and Register button is pressed, the error message box will appear. All the Member Name box, NRC Number Box, Address box, Phone Number box, Email box should be typed and Registration Date date picker box should be typed before pressing Register Button. (a) ASSUMPTIONS Due to Assignment, the DVD store is changing its manual system to computerize system. The DVD store has two sale assistant and manager. The Sale Assistant registers customers, make loans, accept returns and selling where manager orders DVDs from suppliers, manage DVD category and many others. We have to do analysis for this DVD store system. Here are the Tasks I have to do in this assignment. -In task (1), I have to draw Data Flow Diagram which allows me to estimate the scope of the whole system. -In task (2), I have to draw Entity Relationship Diagram which allows me to know the relationships between the entities. -In task (3), I have to draw Entity Life History which allows me to know the process of DVD. -In task (4), I have to normalize the processes and data dictionary which allows me to know the tables for the data base and the contents of data base. -In task (5), I draw draft screen designs and prototype to show the users how the interface will be done and write validation rules for each form. (b) REVIEW OF TASK 1 to 5 Task (1) In the task (1), I have to draw the context diagram and low level of DFDs for DVD loan system. And I have to write the aims and objectives of the DVD loan system. Task (2) In the task (2), I have to draw the entity relationship diagram for the DVD loan system. I have to write the entity description, attributes description and optionality and degree of relationships between entities. Task (3) In the task (3), I have to draw entity life history for a DVD. Task (4) In the task (4), I have to draw the form designs and normalize each form. And I have to write a data dictionary for all items included in the database design. Task (5) In the task (5), I have to draw the draft screen designs and prototypes for searching DVD, loaning DVD and registration a new customer. And then I have to write the validation rules of each form. (c) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages User friendly interface Reduce time consuming Faster finding fact Ability to save records Can calculate cost easily Reliability Disadvantages Expensive System broke down can occur The user will have difficulties at first time handling the software (d) SITE PREPARATION FOR THE INSTALLATION OF THE SYSTEM -Power Supply Ensure that there are enough electrical outlets and that the capacity of the circuit is sufficient for the expected load. UPS and isolators should be used. -Heat dissipation All electrically powered equipment generates heat. So, both the carefully positioning of machines and the potential need for air conditioned needs to be considered to ensure that excessive heat is properly dealt with. -Office alternations Certain items of equipment can take up large amount of space or require special cabling. Thus, office premises may require modifications in order to accommodate them. Any alternations need to be completed well before the installation of equipment which may be damaged by dust or dampness -Office Layout With the introduction of a computer based system any existing manual routine are bound to change. As a result, it may be necessary to change the office layout to facilitate the new computerized procedure. Office Furniture The introduction of new computer equipment may require the provision of new furniture. It is particularly important to ensure that any agronomic requirements of user are properly met. (e) HARDWARE No Description Unit Price Quantity Total Price 1. P4 Casing ( Normal Light ) 50000 1 50000 2. Keyboard 5000 1 5000 3. Mouse 7500 1 7500 4. 18.5 LCD Color Monitor (Samsung) 135000 1 135000 5. CPU: Intel P4 Dual Core 2.6 GHz 67000 1 67000 6. 512 MB DDR RAM ( PC 400 MHz ) 26000 1 26000 7. 250 GB HDD ( Seagate ) SATA 49000 1 49000 8. UPS 600 VA ( Power tree ) Classic 60000 1 60000 9. G31MV-K micro-ATX Motherboard 56900 1 56900 10. Speaker 180 Watts 5700 1 5700 11 Canon LaserJet 3050 111000 1 111000 12. 22x DVD-Writer (Samsung) SATA 29000 1 29000 Total Cost with Kyat 602100 References Title System Analysis and Design URL Lecture Book
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Compare/Contrast The Friars Tale and The Summoners Tale Isaac Atayero Sir. John Campion Advanced Placement United States History 12/14/11 In ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s genius work, The Canterbury Tales, the Friar and the Summoner tell tales of mockery about one another. Like the Miller and the Reeve before them the Friar and the Summoner are in rivalry with each other. However the difference between the rivalry between the Reeve and the Miller and the rivalry between the Friar and the Summoner is the competitive spirit. Unlike the Reeve and the Miller, the Friar and the SummonerÃ¢â¬â¢s rivalry is not a personal hatred but a hatred for the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s office.This hatred inspires the tales of both the Friar and the Summoner. The two tell talesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The FriarÃ¢â¬â¢s tale mocks the idiotic summoner who says Ã¢â¬Å" iÃ¢â¬â¢ll hold to my engagement...though you were...the very DevilÃ¢â¬ (298). The FriarÃ¢â¬â¢s mockery of the Summoner and his occupation would soon be repaid by the vengeful and angry Summoner. After the FriarÃ¢â¬â¢s offensive tale, the Summoner Ã¢â¬Å"rose in wrath against th e FriarÃ¢â¬ (303). As a bitter response to The FriarÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, the Summoner tells a tale that mocks the Friar. Before his tale, the Summoner mocks the Friar in his prologue. In his prologue, a friar goes to hell with an and he is surprised that of all the friars Ã¢â¬Å"none ever come into this place?Ã¢â¬ (304). The angel then shows the friar Ã¢â¬Å"some twenty thousand friars...crept into his (the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s) arseÃ¢â¬ (304). After his funny prologue, the Summoner then tells his even funnier tale.In The SummonerÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale , the tale includes acts of perversion of office committed by the friar. These perversions are mainly related to the FriarÃ¢â¬â¢s vow of poverty such as Ã¢â¬Å"pretence of prayingÃ¢â¬ (308) for Ã¢â¬Å"those who gave him offerings or foodÃ¢â¬ (305). Like the Summoner did earlier, the Friar interrupts the Summoner while he is telling his tale , saying Ã¢â¬Å"there you lie, you Summoner!Ã¢â¬ (306). The Summoner continues his tale about a fr iar who stops at the home of a sickly man named Thomas and attempts to get money from the ailing man and his wife. The Summoner chronicles that the friar Ã¢â¬Å"kissed her (ThomasÃ¢â¬â¢ wife) sweetly, chirping like a sparrowÃ¢â¬ (307). When the friarShow MoreRelatedThe Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer1969 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn his novel The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer presents the corruption of the Catholic Church through several of his characters. Chaucer lived in a time of controversial indulgences, a way to pay off sins. ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s tales show his opposition to these sinful behaviors that he believed were common among the clergy. In order to protest against sinful behavior and religious corruption, Chaucer uses characters such as the pardoner, the friar, the summoner, and the prioress to show the lack of moralityRead MoreQuestions Macbeth Essay3342 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesMacBeth Questions 1) The season that is described in the opening passage of The Canterbury Tales is spring. According to the narrator, when the season comes the people long to go on pilgrammages. 2) English people want to go down to Canterbury to seek the holy martyr, St. Thomas a Becket. 3) The narrator claims he meets some twenty nine pilgrims. 4) The Knight has fought in Alexandria, Prussia, Lithuania, Granada, North Africa, and Anatolia. 5) If the Knight beats his opponents
Title: Issues responsible for failure of Doha talks and possible solutions. Name: Course: Sunderland ID: EThames Students ID: Intake: Introduction: Current Doha round has been one of the most eventful round but its irony that members couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t reach to condenses. This research paper concentrates on reasons that caused friction among the nations and possible solutions that can be used to resolve these issues or reasons. We will write a custom essay sample on Issues Responsible for Failure of Doha Talks and Possible Solutions. or any similar topic only for you Order Now Agricultural issues and industrial goods market issues, talks has been suspended without any further notice of next round. At the end all the hard work after years of negotiation wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t successful ad differences among the participating nations proved insurmountable. Pascal Lamy, the Director General of the WTO, tried really hard for the success of these talks but all the sides didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show the flexibility that was required for the success of these talks. Failure of Doha round talks also highlight the lack of global leadership at least in some quarters, and this fact is pretty difficult to perceive and there are various reasons for that. Only bright thing emerged from this summit is the talk only need one final push as finishing line is insight. Lot has been already achieved but critical issues need consensus. Success to these talks can bring much needed global stimulus for global economy of hundreds of billions of dollars annually. Both developed and developing countries can gain something out of it, in fact it is a great opportunity for developed nations to address complaints of developing nations where they feel that economic linearization is highly tilted in favor of developed nations. But failure of these talks can bring some serious consequences; it will seriously damage the reputation of WTO and more importantly multilateralism for which everyone is working hard for will be damaged permanently. Most of the representatives were worried about what could be perceived from their stance i. e. compromising on their stance might appear as compromising on national interest. (Deardorff, 2008) Reasons for failure of Doha round: Failure of Doha round talks have put temporary pause on further negotiations, this is not the first time that talks has been failed and further discussion has been suspended. This has happened before also ministerial talks in Seattle in 1997 and in Cancun in 2003 also have met the dead end though there were different reasons and different out come for each of the failure. Exception in case of Doha round is for the first time talks has been suspended officially. Official announcement of suspension of talks came after 14 hour long last meeting for overcoming farm subsidies and tariff cut of G6 members yielded no result. Members of G6 group came together to come to consensus on support for domestic farms, agricultural market access and non agricultural market access were the core points of the discussion. Agricultural issues and Outcome of G6 meeting: Pascal Lamy, the Director General of the WTO called this meeting as a last attempt for consensus. This meeting had ministers from India, Japan, Australia, Brazil, unites states and 25 members from European Union. Main aim of this meeting was to reduce or remove hurdles in the way of free trade in the agricultural sector and goods manufacturing. There were many other factors that were needed to be addressed but entire discussion revolved round these issues. Each side remained firm on it stance and more emphasis was put on precondition before further negations. (Bhagwati Sutherland, 2011) It was necessary for all the participating nations to meet the deadlines and to achieve that it was necessary to agree on figures and formulae for the tariff cut and subsidy cut in context of industrial goods and agriculture modalities but talk couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t move forward in positive direction because irreconcilable differences between participating ministers representing their nations. Failure in the talks was more unfortunate on the background of fresh hopes which were raised in G8 meeting of worlds most powerful and industry oriented nations. Then president of United States and European commission president assured flexibility. Even heads of developing countries like India and Brazil participating in G8 meeting showed their interest in pushing for the breakthrough. (Bhagwati Sutherland, 2011) G6 minister headed for Geneva after St. Petersburg meeting where they were prepared to transform their promises of flexibility into concrete deals. Pascal Lamy, the Director General of the WTO convinced these nations to discuss these issues. Lamy was pushing for USA to reduce domestic farm support and European Union for increasing access for domestic agricultural market and at the same time developing nations like India and Brazil will be convince for reducing their industrial tariffs. Problem here was each group was expecting other group to give in first. In these triangle of issues main hurdle in the talks were issues in agricultural sector which has been mentioned above. The third issue of convincing of India and Brazil for reducing their industrial tariffs didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even make it to the discussion because there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t any result from the discussion of first two issues. In the negotiations USA and European Union were expected to cut the subsidy they were providing to domestic farms at the same time developed nations were expecting India and Brazil, to open their domestic market for agriculture and agricultural goods. Negotiations had the first jolt when far from removing subsidy to agricultural sector USA proposed to increase it. With this development Lamy realized that there wont be any consensus and gap was widening and thus before situation deteriorates any further he suspended the talks. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give any indications when next round of negotiation will begin he hinted that instead of deadlocking on same issues again participating countries should carry out their respective work internally regarding these issues and then participate in the discussion. (Chimni, Chantal, Thomas Trachtman, 2009) Major reasons From above information it is pretty clear that agricultural issues are the main reason for breaking down of talk. Members had heated discussion on this issue and USA offered to cut farm subsidies which proved trade distorting by 53% that is USA proposed to slash the subsidy amount from $48. 2 billion to $22. 5 billion but issue here was this amount of $22. 5 billion was much higher than their last year subsidy, which was $19. 7 billion thus by proposing slash of 53% they were indirectly trying to increase the subsidy on their agricultural sector where all the nations were gathered together to discuss subsidy cut on the agricultural sector by developed nations. This offer from United States didnÃ¢â¬â¢t satisfy any of the G6 members as well as any of the diplomatic delegations from other nations. (Bhagwati Sutherland, 2011) To add to it in the exchange United States expected tariff cut from European nations up to 66% where European Union offered 51% increasing from original proposed position of 39% this offer of 51% was quite close to demand of developing nations where they expected tariff cut from European nations up to 51%. But on the contrary USA stated that European nations only were willing for 48% of tariff cut and they were expecting at least of 54%. Both India and Brazil appreciated this movement from European Nations their representatives also suggested that it was approach from united status which blocked the progress of talk and that resulted in suspension of the talks. Other reasons behind failure of talks: Some issues other than agricultural issues also played their part in the failure of the talks in Doha round. The presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s administration in USA was under severe pressure from congress and it had to give in because of pressure of protecting domestic interests. Delegates from Special interest groups such as National Association of Manufacturers and American Farm Bureau from United States were present at the summit they monitored as well as instructed representatives of United States. Pressure applied by these groups reduced space of negotiation for United States delegation. There was deep rooted North South tension it combined with many other adverse factors to undermine success of the talks. (Chimni, Chantal, Thomas Trachtman, 2009) Many scholars and commentator stated that current situation in major negotiating parties like United States, India and European Union wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite in the favor of trade concessions; political leadership everywhere was not willing to concede much. Key elections were due in United Status and it was expected that administration wonÃ¢â¬â¢t go for any risky compromise on their position which might appear as compromise on national interest. To add fuel to the fire economic crisis emerged from Wall Street had huge repercussions and it got converted in global slow down. (Deardorff, 2008) There were oppositions for European Union offer of 51% tariff cut from European nations from European Union according to French president Nicolas Sarcozy 51% tariff cut would result in destruction of European agriculture and would reduce more than 100000 jobs. Absence of fast track authority (trade promotion authority) also didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go to well with other delegations. Without passing of trade promotion authority it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been possible to get passing of congress even if participating nations would have managed to reach some kind of consensus. After effects of talk failure: India, Brazil, Japan, Australia, USA and European were involved in 14 hours long meeting to make consensus but unfortunately the meeting ended without any results on lowering tariff and slashing farm subsidies. This failure in talks gave birth to inhibited blame game in the participating countries. EU Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson said that Ã¢â¬Å"What theyÃ¢â¬â¢re saying is that for every dollar that they strip out of their trade-distorting farm subsidies, they want to be given a dollarÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of market access in developing country markets. That is not acceptable to developing countries and itÃ¢â¬â¢s a principle that I, on EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf, certainly couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t sign up to either. This is not my definition of leadershipÃ¢â¬ In reply to this statement from EU Trade Commissioner, Susan Schwab from USTR alleged that statement by the EU alleging that the US failed to show flexibility and attempting to divert the blame for the stalemate is false and misleading. The countries that have tended to be finger-pointing at this point are the ones that are reluctant to act in terms of market access. We are deeply disappointed that the EU failed to exhibit similar restraint and hope this will not jeopardize the few chances we have left to save the Doha round. Ã¢â¬ EU and US kept pointing fingers at each other after suspension of Doha round each party blaming other party for failure of Doha round. As usual India also blamed developed nations for not removing subsidies those were proved a trade distorting. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s industry and commerce minister Kamal Nath said that Ã¢â¬Å"It is best we tell the world that the talks have failed, and the negotiating process is suspended. Now, there is no roadmap for the future,Ã¢â¬ according to him United StateÃ¢â¬â¢s approach of refusing to cut subsidy regarding agricultural sector has been solely responsible for failure of talks at Doha summit. European Union also openly blamed Unites status for suspension of negotiation. EU Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson stated that it was disappointing to see lack of flexibility in USAÃ¢â¬â¢s approach after promising the same in G8 summit. To take the blame game further US officials blamed other trading partners for failure of process to bridge the differences on other important issues such as import duties on tariff related to agricultural sector. US officials further alleged that they were prepared to remove subsidies related to agricultural sector those were proved a trade distorting but they could not do so because India and European Union did not present any substantial proposal on global agricultural market access. Pascal Lamy, the Director General of the WTO preferred to stay away from the blame game; he was more intended on how to resume talks. Lamy urged all the participating nations to avoid megaphone diplomacy and do some introspection in order to avoid such situation in the future. Lamy also requested all participating nations to think positively to arrive at any acceptable solution. Chances of resolving the differences: Doha round has been disappointing and talks has been moved to deep freezing state since then. There is very little positivity around these talks very few people are still in belief of revival, though Brazil and United States have promised to work hard in positive direction for revival f the talks chances are looking really thin about it. Most experts believed that there are little hopes for revival of talks ahead of Doha round. Breakdown at that juncture meant that there is very little hope for revival of talk before end of presidency tenure of then president of United States. As mentioned above, fast track authority or trade promotion authority thinks that congress must show green or red signal otherwise opponent might take advantage of such situation. Political climate in United States during that time was not very conducive for any compromise because of mid term elections current trade deficit in US economy also played negative role extension of fast track authority and even if it would have happened, in case of opposition win in the election would lead to weakening of fast track authority. Hoekman, 2003) It is believed that France who is strongly opposing for 51% tariff cut in agricultural sector has forced Lamy to suspend the talks indefinitely. In fact many say that France made it sure that talks get suspended that if discussion is highly concentrated on agricultural issues. Wall street journal quotes French agricultural minister saying that Ã¢â¬Å"I would prefer the negotiations fail rather than raise questions about agricultureÃ¢â¬ . Because of t his situation promises by USA and Brazil of reviving talks appear unrealistic. Successful round and preconditions: Political capitals should be mobilized in order to have any hope for success in breaking the deadlock this has to be done domestically as well as internationally. This will require monumental leadership globally. With new president United State certainly has position to do this. Morally also United State has to take responsibility because they are the most influential and powerful nation in the world to add to it they are responsible for current economic crisis. Other major trading nations like Canada, Japan and European nations also should join United States in these initiatives of bold economic reforms and liberalization. Meaning of economic liberalization itself is to save public money and removing of wasteful economic programs. It is true that current financial status of United Status might complicate things for that country still United States can afford to act little proactively. Road ahead: There is growing concern about global economic recession and itÃ¢â¬â¢s after effects and because of mounting fear world leaders are requesting businesses to consult their respective governments, to think successful solution regarding failure of talks in Doha because if that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen there is constant risk of developing other barriers in world trade. Peter Mandelson feels that it better to act quickly and it consensus are not reached immediately, chances are pretty slim that it will be done in future. Trade talks were working on stop start basis from last six years but after Doha talks are on halt. A constructive seminar was held at Davos where subject was Ã¢â¬Å"Threats to the Global Trading SystemÃ¢â¬ some progress was registered on some technical issues in this summit but no party still is close enough for any sort of formal agreement because of high degree of skepticism. Developing countries are concerned about interests of their farmers; they feel that lowering the tariff might expose farmers especially poor farmers to global competition for which they might not be prepared for, and this situation will have its adverse effects on growth and will result in slowdown of entire economy. Minister of Commerce and Industry of India Kamal Nath insisted that India, Africa and Asia pacific are the most productive markets for developed nations and if they want to take advantage of these markets it has to be made sure that India, Africa and Asia pacific have healthy economy. Deardorff, 2008) At the same time financial scholars feel that cost of failure of Doha talks is already taking its toll on participating nations and if solution is not obtained in near future most of the countries might opt for protectionism and this will be bad news for free trade as it will be the roll back what ever progress that has bee made in the direction of free global trade. Pascal Lamy, the Director General of the WTO has mentioned his concern may time according to him effects of global economic slow down might be having their exaggerated side effects on global economy due to Doha failure. Minister of foreign affairs in Brazil Celso Amorim is also worried about current situation he feels that though all the negotiating parties are adamant on their position they all have to face the consequences in near future for their stance. (Das, 2009) Because of increasing delay companies are loosing their faith in negotiators and voters though they have lot more o gain from what ever negotiations carried out at Doha though lot more still left to be achieved and because of this companies and powerful and influential corporate houses all over the world should consider the fact that stalling of talks will result in loss of opportunities for them thus as mentioned above they should use their might to convince their respective government and if they succeed to do so, it will be a terrific achievement. Conclusion: The longest trade round ever was held in Doha. It could have been termed as constitutional moment for trading systems across the world. Structure of trade between the member nations is largely dependent on future of Doha talks how it ends and what shape does it take. Having said this, this round will exist without any positive response or developmental challenges. For Doha to succeed and for better future for WTO in the context of its credibility it is important that focus of the talks shifts from mere commercial bargain that is controlled by major negotiating parties to a process of public interests whoÃ¢â¬â¢s success will be beneficial for all. Commercial bargains of the member nations of WTO have been primarily responsible for jeopardizing of the talks. Although some members think for alternative way for controversial points they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be as productive as successful Doha round nor do they will be able to survey larger public good. For dispassionate involvement in the negotiations highlights lack of leadership from USA. It is responsibility of trading partners of United States be its developing or developed nation to prevent that nation from becoming a stumbling block in the talks. At the end of the day it must be remembered that world in which every one has enough food to eat and good enough work to do; only such world can derive peace and security for global citizens which can be provided by successful trade. References: Deardorff, A. , 2008 Ã¢â¬Å"International Provision of Trade Services, Trade and Fragmentation. Ã¢â¬ Review of International Economics, Vol 9 No. 2. pp. 233-48. The Economist, 2003 Ã¢â¬Å"The WTO Under Fire. Ã¢â¬ September 18 Available on the Internet at http://www. economist. com. /PrinterFriendly. cfm? Story_ID=2071855 Hoekman, B. 2003. Cancun: Crisis or CatharsisÃ¢â¬ . Paper presented at the joint roundtable of the Brookings Institution and George Washington University held on 20 September, in Washington DC. Pr Jagdish Bhagwati and Peter Sutherland KCMG, (January 2011) THE DOHA ROUND: SETTING A DEADLINE, DEFINING A FINAL DEAL Interim report B. S. Chimni, Chantal Thomas Joel P. Trachtman eds. , (2009 ) Some Reflections on the Idea of Free Trade and Doha Round Trade Negotiations, in DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE WTO LEGAL SYSTEM 21, at 27Ã¢â¬â28 A key year ahead for Doha trade talks, available at: http://www. weforum. rg/node/65945 Accessed on: 9-7-11 DAS, supra note 151, at 105. There is also a collective benefit from trade liberalization: developing countries should open their markets among one another to fully achieve Ã¢â¬Å"export-market diversification. Ã¢â¬ Id. at 106. Dilip K. Das. 2009a. ,Financial Globalization and the Emerging Market Economies. Routledge, London and New York. 2009. Lamy, P. , 2003 Ã¢â¬Å"Can the Doha Development Agenda Live up to its Name? Ã¢â¬ Available on the Internet at http://europa. eu. int/comm/commissioners/lamy/speeches_articles/spla188_en. htm September 10, 2008 How to cite Issues Responsible for Failure of Doha Talks and Possible Solutions., Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Introduction Ethics are the standards or moral principles that determine whether particular actions or deeds are good or bad. In addition to this, ethics helps to understand whether the choice of action pursued is right or wrong. Values and ethics are a part of all communication and organizational experiences. Certain ethics are applicable to different types of situations and dilemmas. This essay outlines two types of dilemmas that a newly appointed personnel director would be faced with due to the new role and responsibilities acquired.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Values and Ethical Communication Behaviours specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Situation 1 Being the newly appointed personnel director for a large beverage distributor, there are new job responsibilities include screening all applicants for promotions to management positions. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s usual procedure is for the personnel director to scre en applicants and select the top three for further interviews with management. A factor to be considred is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s president opinions about the staff members, and his desire to keep woman away from his personal staff. The decision is challenging because the most recent vacancy is on the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s personal staff and the top three applicants are female. The possible causes of action include: sending the three applicants to the president and wait to see what happens; rethinking the selection criteria and trying to have a male applicant in the top three; and re-opening the position, hoping to attract additional qualified applicants. Solution This situation can be tricky in that as a personnel director one is supposed to get a solution that will suit the company without any collusion with management including the president. With this in mind, it is best to do away with the top three applicants and schedule for another interview session after re-advertisement of the position. The men applicants who did not make it to the top three are probably not good candidates, and would therefore be sent away. with a higher rank in the organization, it would be appropriate to inquire from the orgnizationÃ¢â¬â¢s president on his standing about recruiting female members of staff. Situation 2 You have overheard a conversation between your manager and the manager of a department in which your best friend is employed. From their conversation, it is apparent that your friend is not pleasing her manager and she will definitely be passed over for the promotion she badly wants. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to see her hurt, and you happen to know she has a job offer from another group within your organization.Advertising Looking for essay on business communication? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Should you tell her about the conversation and urge her to take the new offer? Should you remain silent because of the ma nner in which you heard the information? Should you go to your boss and tell him that you accidentally over- heard the conversation and are concerned because your friend might turn down a good job offer? Should you urge your friend to confront her boss? You have other options. What would you do? What should you do? Solution In this situation, I would give my friend the information i over heard, but insist on avoiding confrontations. As she already has another job offer, the best thing would be to walk away silently and get the other job thereby avoiding office conflicts. This way she might get a recommendation letter from her job. Confronting the manager might be a messy situation. It also would ruin my position in the job as my manager will lose trust in me. However, overhearing information and going ahead to tell it is not company ethics. It may viewed as gossip. It would be better if this information was kept silent and let events take their toll. If my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s manager is not pleased with her work, it could mean that she is inefficient therefore passing her over the promotion would be the right thing to do. Again, this would turn out positive as she would sole search herself and opt to work harder and correct her mistakes. In the two situations, what I would do and what the right move should be differ. This is because I chose personal beliefs over company laws. Most of the time we let personal behaviors outdo the organizational responsibilities. For example in the second situation, I chose to help out a friend and ignore normal company beliefs. In laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s language, human beings let their hearts speak. Criteria The criterion used to solve these dilemmas was observation of the behaviors of people in their personal communication. The solutions provided have to be efficient in order to eliminate arguments and disagreements with superiors while maintaining company ethics, for example, by avoiding gossip and scandals. Conclusion Ethics ensures tha t organizations run effectively by eliminating problems related to the manner in which employees conduct themselves with regard to each other, as well as top management. All employees should avoid unethical behavior in order to create a good and comfortable work conditions. Managers should also ensure that company ethics are observed, by providing correct guidance to the various situations that arise in the work place, and making rational and just decisions regarding employee conflicts. References Zalabak, P. S. (2011). Fundamentals of Organizational Communication (8th Edition). Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Allyn Bacon.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Values and Ethical Communication Behaviours specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This essay on Values and Ethical Communication Behaviours was written and submitted by user Ult1mates to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Evolution of the Spinning Wheel The spinning wheel is an ancient invention used to transform various plant and animal fibers into thread or yarn, which are subsequently woven into cloth on a loom. No one knows for certain when the first spinning wheel was invented. Historians have come up with several theories. In Ancient History of the Spinning Wheel, German author and science historian Franz Maria Feldhaus traces the origins of the spinning wheel back to ancient Egypt, however, other historical documentation suggests that it debuted in India between 500 and 1000 A.D., while other evidence cites China as the point of origin. For those who accept the latter theory, the belief is that the technology migrated from China to Iran, and then from Iran to India, and finally, from India to Europe during the late Middle Ages and earlyÃ Renaissance. The Evolution of Spinning Technology A distaff, a stick or spindle upon which wool,Ã flax or other fibers are spun by hand is held horizontally in a frame and turned by a wheel-driven belt. Generally, the distaff was held in the left hand, while the wheel belt was slowly turned by the right. Evidence of early handheld spindles, from which spinning wheels would eventually evolve, have been found in Middle Eastern excavation sites that date back as far as 5000 BCE. Distaffs were used to create threads for the fabrics in which Egyptian mummies were wrapped, and were also the primary tools for spinning ropes and the material from which ship sails were constructed. Since spinning by hand was time-consuming and best-suited to small-scale production, finding a way to mechanize the processÃ was a natural progression. Although it would be some time before the technology reached Europe, by the 14th century, the Chinese had come up with water-powered spinning wheels. Around the year 1533, a spinning wheel featuring a stationary vertical rod and bobbin mechanism with the addition of a foot pedal debuted in the Saxony region of Germany. Foot power freed up the hands for spinning, making the process much faster. The flyer, which twisted the yarn as it was spun was another 16th-century advancement that increased the rate of yarn and thread production dramatically. The Industrialization of the Spinning Wheel At the dawn of the 18th century, the technology to produce thread and yarn was falling behind the ever-increasing demands for plentiful, high-quality textiles. Resulting yarn shortages led to an era of innovation that would eventually culminate in the mechanization of the spinning process. With British carpenter/weaver James Hargreaves 1764 invention of the spinning jenny, a hand-powered device featuring multiple spools, spinning became industrialized for the first time. Although a vast improvement over its hand-powered predecessors, the thread spun by Hargreaves invention wasnt of the best quality. Further improvements came via inventorsÃ Richard Arkwright,Ã inventor of the water frame and Samuel Crompton, whose spinning mule incorporated both water frame and spinning jenny technology. The improved machines produced yarn and thread that was much stronger, finer, and of higher quality than that produced on the spinning jenny. Output was greatly increased as well, ushering in the birth of theÃ factory system. Spinning Wheel in Myth and Folklore The spinning wheel trope has been a popular plot device in folklore for thousands of years. Spinning is cited in the Bible and also makes its appearance in Greco-Roman mythology, as well as various folktales throughout Europe and Asia. Sleeping Beauty The earliest version of Sleeping Beauty appearance made its appearance in a French work, Perceforest (Le Roman de Perceforest) written sometime betweenÃ 1330 and 1345. The story was adapted in the collected tales of the Brothers Grimm but is best known as a popular animated film from the studio of Walt Disney. In the story, a king and queen invite seven good fairies to be the godmothers of their infant princess. At the christening, the fairies are fÃ ªted by the king and queen, but unfortunately, there was one fairy who, through an oversight, never got an invitation but shows up anyway. Six of the other seven fairies have already bestowed gifts of beauty, wit, grace, dance, song, and goodness on the baby girl. Out of spite, the miffed fairy puts an evil spell on the princess: The girl is to die on her 16th birthday by pricking her finger on a poisoned spindle. While the seventh fairy canÃ¢â¬â¢t lift the curse, with her gift, she can lighten it. Instead of dying, the girl will sleep for a hundred years- until sheÃ¢â¬â¢s awakened by the kiss of a prince. In some versions, the king and queen hide their daughter in the forest and change her name, hoping that the curse wonÃ¢â¬â¢t find her. In others, the king orders every spinning wheel and spindle in the kingdom be destroyed, but on the day of her birthday, the princess happens on an old woman (the evil fairy in disguise), spinning away at her wheel. The princess, who has never seen a spinning wheel, asks to try it, and of course, pricks her finger and falls into an enchanted slumber. As time passes, a great thorny forest grows up around the castle where the girl lies sleeping but eventually, the handsome prince arrives and braves the briars, finally awakening her with his kiss. Arachne and Athena (Minerva) There are several versions of the cautionary tale of Arachne in Greek and Roman mythology. In the one told in OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s Metamorphosis, Arachne was a talented spinner and weaver who boasted that her skills exceeded those of the goddess Athena (Minerva to the Romans). Hearing the boast, the goddess challenged her mortal rival to a weaving contest. Athenas work pictured four tableaux of mortals being punished for daring to think they equaled or surpassed the gods, while Arachnes showed gods abusing their powers. Sadly for Arachne, her work was not only superior to AthenaÃ¢â¬â¢s, the theme sheÃ¢â¬â¢d chosen only added insult to injury. Enraged, the goddess tore her competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s work to shreds and beat her about the head. In desolation, Arachne hanged herself. But the goddess wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t through with her yet. Live on then, and yet hang, condemned one,Ã¢â¬ Athena said, Ã¢â¬Å"but, lest you are careless in future, this same condition is declared, in punishment, against your descendants, to the last generation! After pronouncing her curse, Athena sprinkled Arachnes body with the juice of Hecates herb, Ã¢â¬Å"and immediately at the touch of this dark poison, Arachnes hair fell out. With it went her nose and ears, her head shrank to the smallest size, and her whole body became tiny. Her slender fingers stuck to her sides as legs, the rest is belly, from which she still spins a thread, and, as a spider, weaves her ancient web. Rumplestiltskin This fairytale of German origin was collected by theÃ Brothers GrimmÃ for the 1812 edition ofÃ their Childrens and Household Tales. The story revolves around a social-climbing miller who tries to impress the king by telling him his daughter can spin straw into gold- which of course, she cant. The king locks the girl in a tower with a roomful of straw and orders her to spin it into gold by the next morning- or else face a harsh punishment (either decapitation or lifelong imprisonment in a dungeon, depending on the version). The girl is at her wits end and terrified. Hearing her cries, a tiny demon appears and tells her he will do whats been asked of her in exchange for a trade. She gives him her necklace and by morning, the straw has been spun into gold. But the king still isnt satisfied. He takes the girl to a larger room filled with straw and commands her to spin it into gold by the next morning, again or else. The imp comes back and this time the girl gives him her ring in trade for his work. The following morning, the king is impressed but still not satisfied. He takes the girl to an enormous room filled with straw and tells her if she can spin it into gold before morning, he will marry her- if not, she can rot in the dungeon for the rest of her days. When the demon arrives, she has nothing left to trade but the demon comes up with a plan. Hell spin the straw into gold- in exchange for her first-born child. Reluctantly, the girl consents. A year later, she and the king are happily married and she has given birth to a son. The imp returns to claim the baby. Now a wealthy queen, the girl begs him to leave the baby and take all her worldly goods but he refuses. The queen is so distraught, he makes her a bargain: If she can guess his name he will leave the baby. He gives her three days. Since no one knows his name (other than himself), he figures its a done deal. After failing to learn his name and exhausting as many guesses as she can come up with over the course of two days, the queen flees the castle and runs into the woods in despair. Eventually, she happens on a small cottage where she chances to hear its occupant- none other than the awful imp- singing: Tonight, tonight, my plans I make, tomorrow tomorrow, the baby I take. The queen will never win the game, for Rumpelstiltskin is my name. Armed with the knowledge, the queen returns to the castle. When the imp shows up the next day to take the baby, she calls out the evil tricksters name, Rumpelstiltskin! In a fury, he disappears, never to be seen again (in some versions, he gets so mad he actually explodes; in others, he drives his foot into the ground in a fit of rage and a chasm opens up and swallows him).
Monday, March 2, 2020
Background of the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921 The Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921, informally called the Maternity Act, was the first federal law to provide significant funding to help people in need. The purpose of the Act was to reduce maternal and infant mortality. The legislation was supported by progressives, social reformers, and feminists including Grace Abbott and Julia Lathrop.Ã It was part of a larger movement called scientific mothering- applying scientific principles and to the care of infants and children, and educating mothers, especially those who were poor or less educated. Historical Context At the time the legislation was introduced, childbirth remained the second leading cause of death for women. About 20% of children in the United States died in their first year and about 33% in their first five years. Family income was an important factor in these mortality rates, and the Sheppard-Towner Act was designed to encourage states to develop programs to serve women at lower income levels. The Sheppard-Towner Act provided for federal matching funds for such programs as: Health clinics for women and children, hiring physicians and nurses to educate and care for pregnant women and mothers and their childrenVisiting nurses to educate and care for pregnant and new mothersMidwife trainingDistribution of nutrition and hygiene information Support and Opposition Julia Lathrop.of the U.S. Childrens Bureau drafted the language of the act, and Jeannette Rankin introduced it into Congress in 1919. Rankin was no longer in the Congress when the Sheppard-Towner Act passed in 1921. Two similar Senate bills were introduced by Morris Sheppard and Horace Mann Towner. President Warren G. Harding supported the Sheppard-Towner Act, as did many in the progressive movement. The bill first passed in the Senate, then passed the House on November 19, 1921, by a vote of 279 to 39.Ã It became law after it was signed by President Harding. Rankin attended the House debate on the bill, watching from the gallery.Ã The only woman in Congress at the time, Oklahomas Representative Alice Mary Robertson, opposed the bill. Groups including the American Medical Association (AMA) and its Section on Pediatrics labeled the program socialistic and opposed its passage and opposed its funding in subsequent years.Ã Critics also opposed the law based on states rights and community autonomy, and as a violation of the privacy of the parent-child relationship. Not only did political reformers, mainly women, and allied male physicians, have to fight for the passage of the bill at the federal level, they also then had to take the fight to the states to get matching funds passed.Ã Supreme Court Challenge The Sheppard-Towner bill was unsuccessfully challenged in the Supreme Court inÃ Frothingham V. Mellon And Massachusetts V. MellonÃ (1923), The Supreme Court unanimously dismissed the cases, because no state was required to accept the matching funds and no injury could be demonstrated. End of Sheppard-Towner By 1929, the political climate had changed sufficiently that the funding for the Sheppard-Towner Act was ended, with pressure from opposition groups including the AMA likely the major reason for the defunding. The Pediatric Section of the American Medical Association actually supported a renewal of the Sheppard-Towner Act in 1929, while the AMA House of Delegates overrode their support to oppose the bill.Ã This led to the walkout from the AMA of many of the pediatricians, mostly male, and the forming of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Social and Historical Significance The Sheppard-Towner Act was significant in American legal history because it was the first federally-funded social welfare program, and because the challenge to the Supreme Court failed. The Sheppard-Towner Act is significant in womens history because it addressed the needs of women and children directly at a federal level. It is also significant for the role of women activists including Jeannette Rankin, Julia Lathrop, and Grace Abbott, who considered it part of the womens rights agenda beyond winning the vote for women. The League of Women Voters and the General Federation of Womens Clubs worked for its passage. It shows one of the ways that the womens rights movement continued to work after the right of suffrage was won in 1920. The significance of the Sheppard-Towner Act in progressive and public health history is in demonstrating that education and preventive care provided through state and local agencies could have a significant effect on maternal and child mortality rates.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Governor Deval Patrick-Commonwealth of Massachusetts - Essay Example Patrick is much concerned with education and that is his main reason of funding the public education at the highest level in the history of the common-wealth. Governor Patrick also made his state to be the leading in biotech, biopharmaceuticals and information technology. Issues of infrastructure and expansion of affordable health care were solved by Governor Patrick. Massachusetts home through the Governor managed to be the first state to have offshore wind farm. These amazing performances made the people of his state to describe him as a high (Strong) performing culture leader (Lussier & Achua, 2013). Governor Patrick as a person who grew up in a poor family, he understands in detail most of the problems the members of society are facing. For this reason, he must be strict to issues related to society such as leadership. As a matter of facts, we all see the Governor financing public school education at the top level in the past of commonwealth that later emerged top in the national competition (Lussier & Achua, 2013). Education according to him was the main key point to success to a child into adulthood. Governor Patrick and his administration embraced variety of ideas that could help to boost the living of residents who elected him (Lussier & Achua, 2013). Almost 98% of residents could get access to affordable medical care assistance. The administration through the support of the Governor also ensured that the state is entitled to good leadership, modernized infrastructure and quality education. It is clear evidence that Governor Patrick represents in him some core principles of leadership. First, we get to find Patrick growing up in a broken home and in poverty where most of the advices he got were from his teachers and the grandmother where he was being told to hope for the best and work for it (Lussier & Achua, 2013). PatrickÃ¢â¬â¢s academic career in Harvard made ways for him. As a student, he was elected as an assistant attorney general for